Mock impoliteness in Saudi Arabia: Evil eye expressive and responsive strategies
Journal of Pragmatics, Volume 167, 2020, pp. 4-19
The belief in evil eye is an intriguing phenomenon attested in many cultures across the world (Dundes, 1981; Elworthy, 2004; Ross, 2010 among others). According to this belief, a person can bring damage to others and their possessions by (i) staring at them and (ii) wishing them misfortune (Sheldrake, 2003; Ross, 2010). The current study undertakes a sociopragmatic exploration of evil eye as a constructed speech act in Bani Buhair, a small tribe located in the southwestern province of Saudi Arabia. It argues that evil eye is neither a haphazard phenomenon nor a subsidiary form of compliments. In contrast, evil eye is executed following strict protocol. The analysis shows that Buhairi eyers use similes, metaphors, questions and negation among many other strategies in their evil eye performance. In response, Buhairi eyees react with revengeful expressions, religious invocations of misfortune, complaints and/or threats. These strategies diverge in terms of age (young or middle-aged) and reinforce humor, solidarity and identity among Buhairi in-groups. In this paper, it is argued that evil eye should not be accommodated within either politeness or impoliteness models (Leech, 1983; Brown and Levinson, 1987; Culpeper, 1996) but within Haugh and Bousfield’s (2012) model of mock impoliteness. Both the strategies and the audience's evaluations thereof indicate that evil eye is a non-impolite speech act.
Association Between Meeting Physical Activity, Sleep, and Dietary Guidelines and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Adiposity in Adolescents
Journal of Adolescent Health, Volume 66, Issue 6, 2020, pp. 733-739
The aim of the study was to assess the associations of meeting physical activity (PA), sleep, and dietary guidelines with cardiometabolic risk factors and adiposity in adolescents.
The sample included adolescents aged 10–16years. Accelerometry was used to measure PA and sleep over 7days, 24h/d. The PA guideline was defined as ≥60min/d of moderate-to-vigorous PA. The sleep guideline was 9–11hours (10–13years) or 8–10hours (14–16years) per night. The dietary guideline was based on the Healthy Eating Index calculated from dietary recalls. Cardiometabolic risk factors and adiposity were assessed in an in-patient setting. Linear regression was used to examine the association between meeting each guideline and cardiometabolic risk factors/adiposity, adjusted for confounders and meeting other guidelines.
Of the 342 participants, 251 (73%) provided complete measurements. Adolescents were 12.5 ± 1.9years (African American [37%] and white [57%], girls [54%], and overweight or obesity [48%]). Half met the sleep guideline (52%), few met the PA guideline (11%), and the top quintile was preselected as meeting the diet guideline (20%). Most met one (47%) or no guidelines (35%), and few met multiple guidelines (18%). Meeting the PA guideline was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factors and adiposity (p < .05 for all). Compared with meeting no guidelines, those who met multiple guidelines had lower cardiometabolic risk factors and adiposity (p < .05 for all).
Few met the PA or multiple guidelines, and those not meeting guidelines were associated with adverse cardiometabolic factors and adiposity. Multidisciplinary strategies for improving multiple behaviors are needed to improve adolescent health.
Relationships Among Organizational Values, Employee Engagement, and Patient Satisfaction in an Academic Medical Center
Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes, Volume 4, Issue 1, 2020, pp. 8-20
To examine the relationships among various organizational values, employee engagement, and patient satisfaction in an academic medical center.
Organizational values and engagement data were retrieved from 2015 all-staff survey results from 1876 clinical units at Mayo Clinic. For patient satisfaction data, Press Ganey scores from visits from July 1, 2015, through January 1, 2016, were matched with data for 26 outpatient units from the all-staff survey. The study was performed from January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2017.
From the all-staff survey results, we identified seven constructs related to values and employee engagement, all of which showed high positive correlation with each other. We were able to determine a structural equation model for values and engagement that had an excellent fit (comparative fit index, 0.957). Empowering leadership was positively correlated with the largest number of patient satisfaction items, followed by employee engagement and psychological safety/trust. All items from the care provider category had positive correlations with empowering leadership and psychological safety/trust.
All the organizational values studied showed positive correlation with employee engagement, and all the organizational values and engagement were predictors of excellence and innovation either directly or indirectly. This affirms that honoring organizational values related to respect, psychological safety/trust, empowering leadership, and fairness has a positive influence on employee engagement and desire to pursue excellence. Organizational values, engagement, and empowering leadership behavior were positively correlated with many patient satisfaction items.
Mayo Clinic Care Network: A Collaborative Health Care Model
Journal of the American College of Radiology, Volume 15, Issue 1, Part B, 2018, pp. 167-172
By leveraging its experience and expertise as a consultative clinical partner, the Mayo Clinic developed an innovative, scalable care model to accomplish several strategic goals: (1) create and sustain high-value relationships that benefit patients and providers, (2) foster relationships with like-minded partners to act as a strategy against the development of narrow health care networks, and (3) increase national and international brand awareness of Mayo Clinic. The result was the Mayo Clinic Care Network.
Lineup identification accuracy: The effects of alcohol, target presence, confidence ratings, and response time
The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 8, Issue 1, 2016, pp. 11-18
Despite the intoxication of many eyewitnesses at crime scenes, only four published studies to date have investigated the effects of alcohol intoxication on eyewitness identification performance. While one found intoxication significantly increased false identification rates from target absent showups, three found no such effect using the more traditional lineup procedure. The present study sought to further explore the effects of alcohol intoxication on identification performance and examine whether accurate decisions from intoxicated witnesses could be postdicted by confidence and response times. One hundred and twenty participants engaged in a study examining the effects of intoxication (control, placebo, and mild intoxication) and target presence on identification performance. Participants viewed a simultaneous lineup one week after watching a mock crime video of a man attempting to steal cars. Ethanol intoxication (0.6 ml/kg) was found to make no significant difference to identification accuracy and such identifications from intoxicated individuals were made no less confidently or slowly than those from sober witnesses. These results are discussed with respect to the previous research examining intoxicated witness identification accuracy and the misconceptions the criminal justice system holds about the accuracy of such witnesses.
A pesar de la existencia de intoxicación etílica en muchos testigos oculares de escenas de crimen, hasta la fecha solo hay cuatro estudios publicados que investigan sus efectos en la intervención de los testigos oculares durante la identificación. Solo uno de ellos halló que la intoxicación aumentaba de modo significativo la proporción de identificaciones falsas a partir de presentaciones en ausencia del objetivo y los otros tres no hallaron dicho efecto utilizando el clásico procedimiento de ruedas de reconocimiento. Este estudio ha intentado ampliar la exploración de los efectos de la intoxicación etílica en la actuación en identificaciones y analizar si se podrían conjeturar decisiones precisas por parte de testigos presenciales intoxicados a partir de la confianza y de los tiempos de respuesta. En el estudio para analizar los efectos de la intoxicación participaron 120 personas (control, placebo e intoxicación leve), con presencia del objetivo en la tarea de identificación. Los participantes vieron una rueda de reconocimiento simultánea una semana después, presenciando un video que simulaba un delito cometido por un hombre que intentaba robar coches. Se encontró que la intoxicación etílica (0.6 ml/kg) no suponía diferencia significativa alguna en la precisión de la identificación, además de que tales identificaciones de personas intoxicadas no se llevaban a cabo de un modo menos fiable o lento que las de testigos sobrios. Se comentan los resultados en relación a investigaciones previas, analizando la precisión de la identificación de testigos intoxicados y las falsas creencias que el sistema de justicia penal mantiene acerca de la precisión de tales testigos.
Observation of Hand Hygiene Practices in Home Health Care
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, Volume 22, Issue 5, 2021, pp. 1029-1034
To describe nurse hand hygiene practices in the home health care (HHC) setting, nurse adherence to hand hygiene guidelines, and factors associated with hand hygiene opportunities during home care visits.
Observational study of nurse hand hygiene practices.
and Participants: Licensed practical/vocational and registered nurses were observed in the homes of patients being served by a large nonprofit HHC agency.
Two researchers observed 400 home care visits conducted by 50 nurses. The World Health Organization's “5 Moments for Hand Hygiene” validated observation tool was used to record opportunities and actual practices of hand hygiene, with 3 additional opportunities specific to the HHC setting. Patient assessment data available in the agency electronic health record and a nurse demographic questionnaire were also collected to describe patients and nurse participants.
A total of 2014 opportunities were observed. On arrival in the home was the most frequent opportunity (n=384), the least frequent was after touching a patient's surroundings (n=43). The average hand hygiene adherence rate was 45.6% after adjusting for clustering at the nurse level. Adherence was highest after contact with body fluid (65.1%) and lowest after touching a patient (29.5%). The number of hand hygiene opportunities was higher when patients being served were at increased risk of an infection-related emergency department visit or hospitalization and when the home environment was observed to be “dirty.” No nurse or patient demographic characteristics were associated with the rate of nurse hand hygiene adherence.
Hand hygiene adherence in HHC is suboptimal, with rates mirroring those reported in hospital and outpatient settings. The connection between poor hand hygiene and infection transmission has been well studied, and it has received widespread attention with the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2. Agencies can use results found in this study to better inform quality improvement initiatives.
Copyright © 1997 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Verbal. Indirect Communication: Saudi Arabians generally have an indirect communication style. It is common for people to understate their opinion in an effort to save face and remain polite. You may have to make assumptions about what is not said.What is a cultural communication pattern? ›
To develop confidence in intercultural communication, you must understand differences in cultural patterns. Cultural patterns are the similar behaviors within similar situations we witness due to shared beliefs, values, norms and social practices that are steady over time.What are the 4 cultural styles of communication? ›
- 4.1 Direct vs. Indirect Style. The direct-indirect style refers to the way of expressing the speaker's true intention in terms of his needs, wants and desires. ...
- 4.2 Elaborate vs. Exacting vs. ...
- 4.3 Personal vs. Contextual style. ...
- 4.4 Instrumental vs. Affective style.
Social loyalty is of great importance in Arab culture. Family is one of the most important aspects of the Arab society. While self-reliance, individuality, and responsibility are taught by Arabic parents to their children, family loyalty is the greatest lesson taught in Arab families.What is the importance of Arabic language and culture? ›
Arabic is the main language of Islam, a religion that has around 1.5 billion followers. It is the language of the Quran that is read and studied by all Muslims. Muslims also need Arabic to perform prayers and other forms of worship.How do Muslims communicate? ›
Medium of Communication according to Islam
It is not only the talking but the manners one needs to apply for talking. Politeness, sincerity, and gentleness are what Qur'an expects from a person who is talking to someone else. Therefore, words, tone, and gestures must be according to the rules mentioned.